xxiv THE MOSAICS IN S. SAVIOUR IN THE CHORA 327 the church was restored by that benefactress of the Chora. But the testimony of Nicephorus Gregoras,1 of Theodore Metochites,3 and the date marked on the scene representing the miracle of the wine at Cana^ on the right of the figure of Christ over the door leading from the outer to the inner narthex, prove these mosaics to be as a whole the production of the fourteenth century. And this conclusion is confirmed by their unlikeness to mosaic work in the twelfth century, and by their affinity to other work of the same character done in the fourteenth century.3 In fact, the mosaics in the Chora represent a remarkable revival in the history of Byzantine art. They are characterised by a comparative freedom from tradition3 by closer approximation to reality and nature^ by a charm and a sympathetic quality, and by a scheme of colour that indicate the coming of a new age and spirit Curiously enough, they are contemporary with the frescoes of Giotto at Padua (1303-1306). But whatever points of similarity may be detected between them and the work of the Italian artist, or between them and the Italian school before Giotto, should be explained as due to, a common stock of traditions and to the simultaneous awakening of a new intellectual and artistic life in the East and the West, rather than to any direct influence of one school of art upon another. The mosaics of the Chora are thoroughly Byzantine.4 The Frescoes in the Parecclesion :— j. Round the apse:. Six Fathers of the Church (only one figure remains, and that badly damaged. No names are inscribed). 2. In the vault of the apse: a full-length figure of Christ in a vesica dotted with stars. On either side are groups of figures, 3. In the crown of the apse-arch : an angel in a medallion. 1 i. P. 303. z Carmina (ed, Treu), A. 1004, 1039-1043 ; B. 322-334. 3 Diehl, Etudes byxantines: Les mosalques de Kakri/Djami. * See on the whole subject, C. Diehl, in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, troisi&ne p&iode, tome 33, and in his Manuel d'art tyxantin, pp. 732-41 ; Schmitt in his monograph on the Chora ; Mahlmann, Archiwjttr christlkhe Kunst, 1886-87.